The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) standards are critical for ensuring the reliability and security of the power grid in North America. The NERC CIP standards were developed in response to increasing cyber threats to the electric power industry and provide a comprehensive set of security controls for protecting the critical assets of the power grid. In this article, we’ll dive into what NERC CIP is, why it’s important, and what you need to know about NERC CIP compliance. For organizations with critical infrastructure, they need to ensure NERC CIP is integrated into their cybersecurity risk management strategy.



NERC CIP is a set of security standards that were developed to protect the critical infrastructure of the North American power grid. The energy sector is one of the most vulnerable industries when it comes to cyberattacks. The standards were created to ensure that electric power companies and other entities that operate critical infrastructure take appropriate measures to protect against cyberattacks and other security threats. NERC CIP covers a wide range of critical infrastructure assets, including power plants, transmission lines, and control centers.

The NERC CIP standards were first developed in 2006, as renewable energy sources started to become more common. Since then, the standards have been continually updated to keep up with the changing nature of the energy sector. The NERC CIP standards are based on the overall security requirements for critical infrastructure in the energy sector and are meant to protect the bulk electric systems (BES).

Why Is NERC CIP Important?

The importance of NERC CIP cannot be overstated. The electric power industry is critical to the functioning of our society and the economy, and a cyberattack or other security breach could have far-reaching and devastating effects. This fact is not lost on threat actors, including adversarial nation-states.

NERC CIP provides a framework for ensuring that electric power companies and other entities that operate critical infrastructure take appropriate measures to protect against cyberattacks and other security threats. This helps to maintain the reliability and security of the power grid and to ensure that electricity is available when and where it is needed.

NERC CIP Standards Categories

NERC CIP standards are designed to enhance the security of the BES by defining requirements for secure operation, monitoring, and reporting.

The CIP standards are divided into nine categories:

  1. Cybersecurity: Policies, Procedures, and Requirements: This category outlines the establishment, implementation, and periodic review of cybersecurity policies, procedures, and requirements.
  2. Electronic Security Perimeters: This category outlines how to define, maintain, and monitor the security perimeters that protect the BES from cybersecurity threats.
  3. Systems Security Management: This category outlines the requirements for the secure operation and monitoring of the BES.
  4. Personnel and Training: This category outlines the requirements for personnel training related to cybersecurity and physical security.
  5. Incident Reporting and Response Planning: This category outlines the requirements for incident reporting and response planning.
  6. Contingency Planning: This category outlines the requirements for developing contingency plans to respond to potential cybersecurity threats.
  7. Configuration Change Management and Vulnerability Assessments: This category outlines the requirements for the secure management of configuration changes and the assessment of the BES for potential vulnerabilities.
  8. Information Protection: This category outlines the requirements for protecting the BES from cybersecurity threats by controlling access to the assets, systems, and networks.
  9. Physical Security: This category outlines the requirements for the secure operation and monitoring of the physical security of the BES.

NERC CIP Compliance: Who Needs to Comply?

NERC CIP compliance applies to any entity that owns, operates, or has control over critical electric infrastructure in the U.S. This includes most electric utilities, power marketers, and power generation companies. Electric cooperatives are also included, as are non-registered entities that own, operate, or control any portion of the electric grid or grid-related systems. NERC CIP compliance applies to any entity responsible for electric energy transmission or generation, no matter how small, so long as it is connected to the public power grid in any way.

In order to comply with NERC CIP standards, entities must periodically audit and assess their systems and security programs to verify that they meet the standards set forth by NERC. Entities must also develop and submit a compliance report to NERC that demonstrates their ability to meet the standards.

Finally, entities must establish a process to ensure ongoing compliance. When an entity is found to be noncompliant with a NERC CIP standard, NERC has the authority to issue fines, orders for corrective action, or outages. The consequences for noncompliance can be severe, so entities must take NERC CIP compliance seriously.

Key Components of NERC CIP Compliance

There are several key components of NERC CIP, including:

  1. Identification and Authentication: The NERC CIP requires owners and operators of critical infrastructure to put in place identity and authentication management systems that verify users attempting to access the network and restrict access to only those with proper credentials. This includes implementing two-factor authentication, password complexity and management, and revoking access when people leave their position.
  2. Security Management Controls: These are processes and procedures to help ensure that the necessary security measures are in place. This includes configuration management, access control, vulnerability management, patch management, monitoring, incident response, and security awareness training.
  3. System Security Management: This component mandates that owners and operators of critical infrastructure have appropriate levels of security measures, including physical security, environmental controls, hardware/software security, and communication protections. Security protocols and procedures should address issues such as data encryption, data access control, user authentication, and data integrity.
  4. Incident Response: NERC CIP requires that entities adopt incident response plans and procedures to resolve and respond to security incidents appropriately. This includes identification, notification, investigation, containment, recovery, and report preparation.
  5. Reporting and Recordkeeping: Owners and operators of critical infrastructure must have processes in place to track and report CIP violations to NERC, as well as to keep detailed records of all CIP-related activities.

NERC CIP and Cybersecurity

One of the primary focus areas of NERC CIP is cybersecurity. The standards require that electric power companies and other entities that operate critical infrastructure take appropriate measures to protect against cyberattacks and other security threats.

The CIP standards are based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (NIST CSF) and apply to all electric power industry firms and third parties that have access to the BES. They cover the identification, assessment, and mitigation of cyber risks and incidents, the maintenance of cybersecurity policies and procedures, the use of secure configurations for certain types of equipment, and the development of cybersecurity plans.

Additionally, CIP standards require firms to have specific cyber threat detection and response measures in place, as well as provide guidance on minor and major incident reporting, remediation, and problem resolution.

NERC CIP and Physical Security

Physical security is another important aspect of NERC CIP. The standards require that electric power companies and other entities that operate critical infrastructure take appropriate measures to protect against physical threats, such as theft, sabotage, and natural disasters. This includes implementing physical security controls, such as perimeter fencing and access control systems, as well as having recovery plans in place for critical cyber assets.

Enforcement, Penalties, and Fines for NERC CIP Violations

The NERC CIP standards are enforced by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) through civil penalties. FERC has taken a number of actions to enforce CIP standards, including issuing notices of violation, assessing civil penalties, and issuing orders for corrective action.

Violations of the NERC CIP standards can result in significant penalties and fines, especially when the violations lead to a breach of the critical infrastructure. The maximum civil penalty for a single violation of the NERC CIP standards is $1 million, or the amount of any economic benefit gained or economic loss avoided due to the violation, whichever is greater.

Fines may also be imposed on the entity that caused the violation. In addition to civil penalties, NERC CIP enforcement actions may also include orders to take corrective actions, such as cybersecurity policy changes, technology updates, and personnel training. FERC may also issue orders to cease certain activities or suspend certain operations until corrective action is taken.

NERC is committed to protecting the security of the grid and encourages compliance through incentives such as credits for timely self-reported compliance. It also works with electric grid entities to ensure their compliance with the regulations. If a violation is detected, the NERC CIP violations are documented and reported to the FERC for enforcement.

Challenges and Benefits of Complying With NERC CIP

Compliance requires organizations to invest heavily in the right technology, personnel, and processes. It also requires organizations to dedicate significant resources to regularly audit and update their programs, which can be difficult in an industry that is constantly evolving.

Additionally, organizations must remain vigilant in order to stay ahead of emerging threats and ensure their ongoing compliance. The cost implications of NERC CIP are significant for energy companies, as are the potential benefits.

Compliance helps organizations reduce their risk of cyberattacks, ensure the reliability of their systems, and gain a competitive edge in the industry. Additionally, organizations can benefit from improved customer service and trust, as well as improved operational efficiency.

Future of NERC CIP and Cybersecurity in the Energy Sector

The energy sector is constantly evolving, and new technologies and regulations are emerging to help organizations protect themselves from cyber threats. In the future, organizations can expect to see new technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning being used to help secure their systems, as well as new requirements for compliance, such as automated vulnerability management, real-time threat detection, and enhanced data analytics. Additionally, organizations should stay ahead of the curve by regularly updating their policies and procedures to ensure their ongoing compliance with NERC CIP standards.

Kiteworks Private Content Network and NERC CIP Compliance

For sensitive content that is sent and shared within, into, and out of a critical infrastructure organization in the energy sector, the Kiteworks Private Content Network provides comprehensive security and governance. Kiteworks unifies, tracks, controls, and secures sensitive content communications across all channels—email, file sharing, managed file transfer, web forms, and application programming interfaces (APIs). This enables energy-sector organizations to secure sensitive content and demonstrate compliance with NERC CIP and other compliance regulations.

For more on the Kiteworks Private Content Network and NERC CIP, book a custom demo today.


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